For the last 102 years, the month of May at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) has meant the arrival of spring blooms. This year, May brought something else: a new 22,000-square-foot, $28 million visitor center. With growing attendance (a typical 10-week springtime surge sees 500,000 people pass through its gates), BBG needed a more efficient way of welcoming and orienting crowds. So, in 2004, it hired New York–based Weiss/Manfredi Architecture/Landscape/Urbanism—and the firm’s trademark expertise in merging landscape with buildings—to design a new gateway to the gardens.
Weiss/Manfredi carefully crafted two sinuous pavilions (one for events and exhibitions and the other for a gift shop), stitched together by a ribbon of shaded breezeway. The entrance is marked by an expansive plaza—paved with a local mix of concrete and dotted with custom benches—that allows for the kind of urban experience the institution prizes. Three planted gardens that flank the building help capture rainwater runoff.
“There’s a big elasticity in visitor numbers,” explains BBG president Scot Medbury, citing a Mother’s Day attendance of 37,000 but fewer people in colder months. The plaza works to accommodate a full range of numbers—big enough to handle crowds, but intimate enough to not seem barren on a quiet day.
The plaza narrows as part peels off and feeds into the breezeway that curves between the gift shop on one side and the ticket window on the other. After buying tickets, visitors amble through the curved exhibition space or along the pathway beside it, which is shaded by a canopy that hugs the building perimeter. At the terminus of the exhibition hall is a leaf-shaped event space whose garden side is clad in floor-to-ceiling glass. Since its other side is partially embedded into a berm, Weiss/Manfredi finished the opaque wall with ginkgo panels milled from a tree that had to be felled in order to make way for construction. An ample clerestory frames a view of the allée of ginkgo trees that crowns the berm, visually serving up that species in two forms.
The stretched elliptical event space is sandwiched between two discrete outdoor areas. Along the glass wall, a terrace provides space for visitors to congregate and for BBG to host outdoor events. On the other, bermed, edge, stepped terraces—accessed by an exterior stair that wraps the event space and feeds visitors to a passage that cuts through the building—lead up to the ginkgo allée.
The project’s mastery is to be found in the way it manages to assert itself by providing a legible system of organization, while allowing for certain slippages to occur (most notably, between the urban and botanical). “The city seeps into the garden,” says principal Marion Weiss, FAIA, “and the garden seeps into the city.”
“It’s a building that wanders, which you never really see in its entirety,” Weiss says. Rather than passing a definitive threshold, visitors glide from the sidewalk, past the ticket window, then down one of several curved paths. This experiential fluidity is formalized on the roof, where the event space is capped by a planted roof while the gift shop’s urban edge—the one elevation that the architects deem overtly architectural—is covered by a pleated copper roof.
The sigmoidal roof visually stitches together the garden’s tranquility with the bustle of Washington Avenue, but it also makes broader associations. BBG’s offices are housed in a McKim, Mead & White building with a now-patinated copper roof, so from certain points in and out of the gardens, the visitor center’s two roofs are visible from a single vantage. And while the planted roof pays obvious homage to the gardens that surround it, Weiss/Manfredi places it into a matrix of subtle perspectival relationships. From certain angles, the building seems to disappear altogether as the glazed wall becomes shrouded behind the garden’s vegetation: the mounding vegetated roof looks like just another berm.
Another relationship that the building mediates is that of the architectural history of the greenhouse. Weiss/Manfredi includes subtle references to this 19th-century invention with vertical frits on glazed surfaces and the thin white filaments of the entry plaza gates. But unlike the greenhouse’s typological origin, which is steeped in colonialism and aristocracy, Weiss/Manfredi’s nod to this type is driven by access and inclusiveness, effectively undoing its privileged status.
As BBG sets out on what it calls a “Campaign for the Next Century”—which includes the visitor center and a redesigned entrance by Architecture Research Office—it highlights the importance of design in defining an institutional identity. “Environmental design has never been more important than it is today in enhancing the success of cultural institutions of all sizes,” Medbury says. “Excellent architects are essential partners.”
BBG Living Roof Installation from Brooklyn Botanic Garden on Vimeo.
Project Brooklyn Botanic Garden Visitor Center, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Client Brooklyn Botanic Garden
Architect Weiss/Manfredi Architecture/Landscape/Urbanism, New York—Michael A. Manfredi, FAIA, Marion Weiss, FAIA (design partners); Armando Petruccelli (project architect/manager); Hamilton Hadden, Justin Kwok (project architects); Christopher Ballentine, Cheryl Baxter, Michael Blasberg, Paúl Duston-Muñoz, Michael Steiner (project team); Patrick Armacost, Jeremy Babel, Caroline Emerson, Eleonora Flammini, Kian Goh, Michael Harshman, AIA, Aaron Hollis, Hanul Kim, Hyoung-Gul Kook, Lee Lim, Jonathan Schwartz, Na Sun, Jie Tian, Yoonsun Yang (additional team members)
Structural and Civil Engineer Weidlinger Associates Consulting Engineers
M/E/P/FP/IT Engineers Jaros, Baum and Bolles Consulting Engineers
Landscape Consultant HM White Site Architecture
Glazing Consultant R.A. Heintges & Associates
Sustainability/Commissioning Consultant Viridian Energy and Environmental
Geothermal/Geotechnical Consultant Langan Engineering and Environmental
Lighting Consultant Brandston Partnership
Acoustical/Audiovisual/Security Consultant Cerami & Associates/TM Technology
Exhibit Consultant Thinc
Food Service Consultant Ricca Newmark Design
Building and Fire Code Consultant Code Consultants
Concrete Consultant Reginald Hough
Waterproofing Consultant James R. Gainfort
Retail Consultant Jeanne Giordano
Building Department Consultant Design 2147
Specifications Consultant Construction Specifications
Construction Management LiRo Group
General Contractor E.W. Howell
Size 22,000 gross square feet
Cost $28 million (total construction cost)
Materials and Sources
Ceilings Decoustics decoustics.com; USG usg.com
Cladding Quikrete quikrete.com; Dryvit dryvit.com; Sessa Plastering Corp. sessaplastering.com; Henry Co. henry.com; Carlisle Coatings & Waterproofing carlisle-ccw.com; Shüco shueco.com
Doors Shüco shueco.com; Curries, an Assa Abloy Co. curries.com; Mohawk Doors mohawkdoors.com; Doralco doralco.com
Energy EnLink Geoenergy Services enlinkgeoenergy.com; York/Johnson Controls york.com; Data Aire dataaire.com; Viega viega.com; Schneider Electric schneider-electric.com
Flooring Daltile daltile.com; Forbo forbo.com; Haywood Berk Co. haywoodberk.com; Bentley Prince Street bentleyprincestreet.com; L&M Construction Chemicals lmcc.com
Furniture Haworth haworth.com; Chair Factory Pedrali (reception chairs); Landscape Forms landscapeforms.com; Arper arper.com; Knoll knoll.com; Vyeko; St. John’s Woodworking sjww.com
Glazing St. Gobain saint-gobain.com; Precision Glass Bending e-bentglass.com; JE Berkowitz jeberkowitz.com
Hardware Dorma dorma.com; Sargent Manufacturing, an Assa Abloy Group Co. sargentlock.com; Elmes elmesworld.com
Interior Finishes Pionite pionite.com; Ice Stone icestoneusa.com; Site-harvested wood veneers
Lighting Lighting Services Inc. lightingservicesinc.com; The Lighting Quotient thelightingquotient.com; Erco erco.com; Gammalux Systems gammalux.com; Kurt Versen kurtversen.com; Haworth haworth.com; Bega-US bega-us.com; B-K Lighting bklighting.com
Lighting Controls Lutron Electronics Co. lutron.com; Douglas Lighting Control douglaslightingcontrol.com
Millwork Prospec Interiors prospecinteriors.com
Paints and Stains Tnemec tnemec.com; Benjamin Moore & Co. benjaminmoore.com
Plumbing Toto USA totousa.com; Halsey Taylor halseytaylor.com; A.O. Smith www.aosmith.com; Lochinvar lochnivar.com
Roofing Sika Group usa.sika.com; Roofmeadow roofmeadow.com; New York Green Roofs www.redefinetheskyline.com; Firestone Building Products www.firestonebpco.com; Universal Services Group usgltd.com; W.P. Hickman wph.com; W.R. Grace & Co. grace.com