As we approach Fresh Hills the undulating mounds appear to be natural elements growing from the earth. The closer we get, however, it is clear this structure, like the mounds below it, are not native to the recently capped Fresh Kills landfill site. Its form rests lightly on the existing topography and creates definition across the expansive horizon. It caresses the East mound creating a seamless integration between utility scale energy harnessing and a program filled landscape. It creates a harmonious relationship between earth and wind. Fresh Hills is a remedy for the typical turbine farm that so often isolates the landscape and discourages communities from engaging the space. The artificial landscape lifts higher at levels of increased energy potential where more predominant wind speeds and duration exist. It is a direct relationship between energy and land. The apparatus is generated from the grafting of Fresh Kills windrose data onto the site, creating a seamless exchange between the site-specific data and the structure used to harness that information. The project is site specific, but the concept provides global versatility.
The apparatus supports the wind turbines while also acting as a buffer that redirects and dissipates airflow towards the turbines vortex. The expansive surface area at the mouth of the mounds helps funnel wind towards the turbine and takes advantage of the fluid dynamic nature of airflow. The structure guides the airflow creating a low-pressure system on the other side of the mounds resulting in a pastoral central plaza. As if standing at the eye of a storm, the central hub becomes a place to gather, reflect, play, and explore. At the same time, the hub acts as a departure point guiding the user through its valleys to the extending vista platforms. The platforms set up a relationship between the user and the park as they reach out to frame the surrounding context. As site lines extend beyond the immediate park all the way to the Manhattan skyline, a richer meaning to the history of Fresh Kills transpires. Fresh Hills is more than a CO2 filtering, energy generating landscape. Fresh Hills is a beacon tuned to its specific frequency. It illustrates to the world what the future of Fresh Kills stands for and delivers a promise for a healthier future. It is a symbol that people will recognize, learn from, and interact with for many years to come.
The bamboo forest sits at the centre of Fresh Hills where the native plants will not risk being damaged and the bamboo will be shielded by the surrounding mounds. The forest will provide an onsite maintenance solution to the skin of Fresh Hills and will reduce the post production embodied energy of the structure in use by more than 50% as it sequesters greenhouse gases and reduces need for transportation and manufacturing. As the bamboo skin weathers, the damaged areas will be replaced by the on-site bamboo crop. This cyclical nature considers the long-term future of the Fresh Hills and significantly reduces emissions and material transportation needed in normal upkeep. The Fargesia Rufa bamboo (a strong bamboo in winter seasons) and the Moso (a bamboo species with the tensile strength of steel and a load-bearing capacity three times that of modern wooden structural materials) will be planted and harvested every three to five years. The initial supply of bamboo will be provided by Southern Bamboo in Jackson Mississippi, while further outreach will look to local educational institutions for involvement in the development of the Fresh Hills bamboo forest. Due to the foundation constrictions of the site, bamboo is an ideal material for Fresh Hills as it provides strength while resting lightly on the recycled aluminum space frame and shallow concrete footings. The footings remain shallow due to their extensive surface area that follows the contours of the apparatus and rests on individual concrete pads below each turbine rack.
Fresh Hills will work closely with Klaus Lackner of Columbia University to incorporate CO2 scrubbers. The scrubbers will attach to the back of the turbine rack and filter the funneling air, working to remove 1 tonne of CO2 from it every day. The CO2 is absorbed by chemical filters and then collected via a plastic sheet which will be housed and easily accessible by engineers and maintenance staff under the same bamboo shell as the turbines and converters. Fresh Hills will absorb the average annual amount of one American persons CO2 consumption every day, and will remove 7,280 tonnes of CO2 annually.
FRESH eis : Environmental Impact Statement
Based on the Fresh Kills wind energy feasibility study by BQ Energy LLC, we can assume that at least eight of the twenty turbines will be operating at any point in time. If each turbine produces an average of 36 MW annually Fresh Hills will provide an annual energy surplus of 288 MW. According to the 2010 census, the energy consumption of an average New York household is 610 kWh/month. Fresh Hills will then provide enough energy to power nearly 250 homes in the New York area and could power as many as 500 homes in the other areas of the United States. Fresh Hills will become a think tank, promoting the sharing of ideas towards a healthier lifestyle that will ultimately increase the average energy use and increase the impact Fresh Hills will have on our local and global communities in the future.
FRESH embodied energy
If we assume 0.098 tonnes of carbon dioxide is produced per gigajoule of embodied energy, then the total embodied energy for Fresh Hills will be recovered in five to six years.
FRESH HILLS Energy Capacity : 238 megawatts (MW) = 244 average New York households
FRESH HILLS Embodied Energy = 422,000 gigajoule
FRESH HILLS CO2 Scrubber Absorbtion = 7,280 tonnes
FRESH HILLS Embodied Energy return : 5 - 6 years (wind dependant)
FRESH HILLS Materials : concrete, recycled aluminum, bamboo, SmartWrap
FRESH HILLS Technologies :
A. 20X WindTamer 16.0 (proposed) with enhanced wind lens technology
Source: Rochester, NY
Rotor Diameter: 16ft
Cut-in Speed: 2 m/s
Shut Down Speed: N/A
Sound: <25 dB (silent)
B. CO2 Scrubber
C. Integrated Wind Lens technology ( fluid dynamic airflow principles )
Total square feet = 580,000
Total surface area (bamboo) in feet squared = 875,000
Percent material extraction = 8%
Percent material manufacturing = 51%
Bamboo = 1%
SmartWrap = 4%
Concrete = 24%
Aluminum (recycled) = 12%
WindTamer turbines (including inverter) ~ 4%
CO2 Scrubber = 6%
Percent material transport = 19%
Bamboo = 6%
SmartWrap = <1%
Concrete = 4%
Aluminum = 2%
WindTamer turbines (including inverter) = 6%
CO2 Scrubber = 1%
Percent site work = 12%
Percent assembly and installation = 10%
Percent maintenance = negligible
Percent decomposition/deconstruction = N/A